Having accessible and ADA compliant web forms is crucial for providing a positive user experience for all visitors to a website. When web forms are not optimized for users with disabilities, it can create barriers that prevent people from being able to use the site fully.
By following web accessibility best practices, developers can create web-based forms that are inclusive and compliant with ADA regulations. Optimizing forms to work for users of assistive technologies, like screen readers, is key.
Here are some key tips to keep in mind:
Use Semantic HTML
Using proper HTML form markup and semantics is foundational. The <form> tag should contain all the interactive form elements. Form inputs should use specific elements like <input>, <select>, <textarea>, and <button>. These elements have built-in semantics and roles for assistive technologies.
Provide descriptive labels for each form field using the <label> tag. Don’t rely only on placeholder values for conveying the purpose of fields. The <label> tags give meaning for what users should enter into each field.
Programmatically Associate Labels with Fields
The text labels for form fields must be programmatically associated with their corresponding input elements. The best way to connect labels is putting the <label> tag right before the input element.
The “for” attribute can explicitly associate a label with the input ID:
<input type=”text“ id=”name“ name=”name“>
This connects them for assistive tech users.
Provide Text Alternatives
For non-textual elements like select menus, checkboxes, radio buttons, and submit buttons, make sure to programmatically associate text alternatives. The accessible name for these types of inputs should clearly describe their purpose and function.
ARIA labels or attributes like aria-label can be added to convey the text alternatives.
Design Logical Tab Order
The keyboard tab order of the form fields should follow a logical sequence. Users should be able to tab through the different fields cleanly in an order that makes sense.
Visually, the tab order might be formatted in columns. But the tab order itself should follow sequentially row by row.
Offer Form Field Validation
Provide feedback about form validation and error messages. If a field is required or formatted incorrectly, offer suggestions and alerts.
Visually highlight any fields that have errors. The error message should also be programmatically associated with the problem form field, so screen reader users understand what needs fixed.
Ensure Keyboard Accessibility
All forms must be fully operable and navigable using only a keyboard, without requiring mouse or touch input. This is essential for users who can only interact via keyboard.
Keyboard accessibility includes elements like:
- Logical tab order
- Access key shortcuts
- Ensuring links and buttons are in the tab order
- Proper focus states and outlines
Follow Accessibility Standards
Testing forms with assistive technologies like screen readers is also recommended. Strive to provide the same user experience for all visitors, regardless of abilities.
By optimizing web forms for ADA compliance, website owners can create more inclusive experiences. Accessible web design benefits all users. With some effort, forms can be designed to work well for people utilizing various assistive technologies.